JUDITH HELFAND: You can read when youre ready.
CLAUDE HUNDLEY: Tenth, 22nd, 33. Mr. Hugh S. Johnson. Dear sir, I amwriting you a few lines for instruction. I am a colored employee of Saratoga Victory Mill Number Two, Guntersville, Alabama. And have been working there 28 months as an all-around worker, working for $5.75 per week. Got a little raise to $6 per week. When NRA took effect I got a raise to $9 per week. And I have been getting $9 per week for 60 and 67 hours per week, ever since June the 17th of 33. And the way I understand the code, every man, regardless of color, 00:01:00was authorized to get a eight-hour per day minimum wage of $12 per week. So if -- if eight hours for a colored worker long hours for $9 per week and some white workers per $7.60 per week per eight hours per day. Sincerely yours, Claude Hundley of Guntersville, Alabama. Hes my father.
HELFAND: What do you think about that?
HUNDLEY: I think its nice. Well, I was, like I said, I was real small at thetime, you know. And I remember when he left, he worked at that mill a long time. I mean, Dallas Moore and the rest of the people. And never knew they had 00:02:00a strike, though, until you got hold of us through the uh, what was that? The library. Well, all those people that worked. But actually, my uncle, [Yoelle Harris?], [Ellie Hugh?], he worked there. They was part-time workers over there, though. I didnt know that at the time.
HELFAND: What do you think your daddy writing in this letter?
HUNDLEY: I think its great. Back in the 30s? [It would have been?]wonderful. Sure did.
HELFAND: You know, when I ask you a question, you should take my question andsort of put it in your answer.
HELFAND: You know, last -- when we were sitting upstairs, and you looked at --(break in audio) um, why dont you -- wait, why dont we read the last part of it again, OK? An-and really think about what your daddy wrote.
HUNDLEY: OK. The last part of...
HELFAND: Yeah, why dont you start with the way I understood the code.00:03:00Um, every man, regardless of the color was supposed...
HUNDLEY: The way I understood the code, here, every man --
HELFAND: OK, Ill tell you when.
HELFAND: Read it slow. You dont have to rush.
CREW: Were rolling.
HUNDLEY: The way I understand the code, every man, regardless of color, wassupposed to get eight hours per day, minimum wage $12 per week. So if eight hou-- if eight of us boys colored working long hours for $9 per week, and some whites working for $7.60 per week working eight hours per day. Sincerely yours, Claude Hundley, Guntersville, Alabama.
HELFAND: So who was your daddy looking out for?
HUNDLEY: I guess if -- he seemed to be looking out for all the workers, not only00:04:00colored, the way it -- I read it right here. He looked -- he seemed to be more -- eh, thinking about all -- every working man that was out there on the job at the time, lets put it that way.
HELFAND: Um, thats really -- you know, now who -- now, your daddy wasntthe only -- he said that there were six black men who were working there. Could you talk a little bit about, you know, what your daddy did there and who-who -- you know, what the other men did?
HUNDLEY: Mm-hmm. Well, far as I know, they, um, you know, that old mill, theybrought cotton in on cars and on trucks. And they unloaded cotton back there, in the [white house port?]. Thats... So, I guess when they had the extra help, they unloaded the cotton, the same thing.
HELFAND: So what was daddys job there?
HUNDLEY: He was the truck --
HELFAND: [Cause then you could say?] -- my daddy, Claude Hundley --00:05:00
HUNDLEY: Oh, OK. My daddy, Claude Hundley, was a truck [cotton?], you know, inthe mill, there, at the time. And the unload it, and take it up to the people that -- [in needle bobbin?] rooms.
HELFAND: And so he --
CREW: If you could not (inaudible) play with the paper.
HELFAND: Yeah. We dont --
CREW: It makes -- it makes noise.
HELFAND: In fact, you could take a -- you could put the letter down andwell-well pick it up again. While were talking, you can put it down.
HELFAND: So your father was full-time and Dallas Moore was full-time. But hewas t-- he was writing that six -- six workers.
HELFAND: So you th-- you could even tell me, in a general way, you know, whoyour -- what your father did. You know, that your father and Dallas Moore were full-time, maybe what they did, and-and then something about when-when they were bringing those other men. 00:06:00
HUNDLEY: Well, they were, from what I gather, was full-time employees. And, uh,when they need extra help, they brought in those other employees, Im guessing, to -- like I said, to (inaudible). I know they brought in cotton in on the trains -- on boxcars -- and when they had a heavy shipment, they probably helped them unload and work around it in the plant, there.
HELFAND: Now, had you ever heard about a letter like this? I mean, is --
HUNDLEY: No, I havent.
HELFAND: So the first time I brought -- so, could you tell me about the -- is itthe first time that I brought this letter, you started to know about what your father did? Could you tell me that?
HUNDLEY: That's the first time I knew about it, you brought it to my attention,you know, when you were -- well, I think the first time we talked on the telephone. Well, you called two -- I think we talked two or three times over the phone. And then you came and we went around and met people at-at the old mill, village that, uh, -- that knew something about him. And, well. (laughter) Hmm. 00:07:00
HELFAND: So until -- so-so you never knew about this?
HUNDLEY: I never knew.
HELFAND: When you first heard of the letter --
HUNDLEY: I never hear of it. Never even knew he wrote a letter like that.Until, uh, -- like I said, until you brought it to our attention.
HELFAND: Did you -- how did -- uh, how did a black man, at the time your fatherwas working, register a protest (inaudible)?
HUNDLEY: Ooh. Back in the 30s? Hoo-hoo. Id be scared to even think.
HELFAND: Scared to think about what?
HUNDLEY: Writing a protest, uh, you know, a letter like that, against the --something like Saratoga Mills in the South. I dont know. (laughter) I dont -- I guess he just... Just thought about other people, not about himself, and wrote the letter when the new -- when that Act went into effect. I 00:08:00guess he just wrote the letter, after he seen what -- (inaudible) that was the year after President Roosevelt took office, is when that [inaudible]. So I feel that he did it until then and just wanted to get a little more affirmation off of it, is all I can gather. He figured they was doing him wrong and he wrote a letter to protest it.
HELFAND: I guess he felt like hed get some protection, maybe --
HUNDLEY: Some protection from, uh, the federal. But I guess that would comethrough federal courts, wasnt it?
HELFAND: Well, yeah --
HUNDLEY: Back in them times, yeah.
HELFAND: So, youre -- thats -- so what-what is striking to you about thisletter? I mean, pick-pick the letter up. You could read it to yourself, you could read out -- pick the -- pick the letter up and maybe read out the part of it that is so striking to you.
HUNDLEY: Well, really, he was talking about, what I was looking at right there,here in this paragraph, with 60 and 67 hours per week. And then the (inaudible) 00:09:00is supposed to go on eight hours per day for salary. So it looked like, to me, that the company was using the employees for their gain [they werent helping them out?], you know, but working that minimum hours and paying -- they wasnt making that much, you know, the salary they were making. So when he wrote the letter, he didnt only write it for the colored employees. From what I can gather from this writing down here, he was thinking about some of the white employees, too. Im talking about the people that worked in the office -- in the back, back there, the shipping dock [inaudible]. I wouldnt have dreamed of -- would even thought he would have wrot a letter like this. But, uh, I guess he did. At least hes back to -- somebodys thinking about somebody other than themselves, thats what Im thinking right there.
HELFAND: Thats something from back then.
HUNDLEY: Yeah, back in the 30s, it was something to write a letter like that.Sure was. 00:10:00
HELFAND: And what does it mean to be a black man and to write a letter likethis? Include that question. What does that mean to be a black cotton mill worker --
HUNDLEY: And write the --
HELFAND: -- and write a letter like this?
HUNDLEY: Hoo, I dont know how, it's pretty hard to answer that. (laughter)Oh. (inaudible) think. I guess -- I would guess mostly have to say, to write a letter like that and be a cotton mill worker, youd have to have some nerve, first thing. And youd have to have some thought for your fellow man, second, to put yourself out on -- a colored man to put himself out on the line like that. And I would say that hell have to make a little bit about his fellow man, because everybody, I dont think, would have written a letter like that. I really dont. I dont know what his thoughts was or anything right there, 00:11:00but since you brought it to my attention, I respect him a lot for it. I really do. Hm.
HELFAND: Why dont you read it one more time, with all that respect for yourfather, OK?
HUNDLEY: The whole letter?
HELFAND: Yeah. Is that OK?
HUNDLEY: Yeah, its OK. Im going to be sweating in a minute, though,(inaudible). (laughter) This thing.
HELFAND: Were fine.
HELFAND: Read it slow.
HUNDLEY: OK. Tenth, 22nd, 33. Mr. Hugh S. Johnson. Dear sir, I am writingyou a few lines for instruction. I am a colored employee of Saratoga Victory 00:12:00Mill Number Two, Guntersville, Alabama. And have been working there 28 months as a all-around worker, was making $5.75 per week. Got a little raise to $6 per week and when NRA took effect I got a raise to $9 per week. And have been getting $9 per week for 60 and 67 hours per week, ever since June the 17th of 33. And the way I understand the code, every man, regardless of color, was supposed to get eight-hours per day, minimum wage of $12 per week. So eight of us colored boys working long hours for $9 per week and some white workers for 00:13:00$7.60 per week per eight hours per day. Sincerely yours, Claude Hundley of Guntersville, Alabama. And I respect him for writing that letter. I really do, after reading it. I didnt know he did it. But I respect him. Because I -- he makes me think hes thinking about somebody else.
HELFAND: And was standing up for his rights.
HUNDLEY: Well, yeah. Yeah, thats the number one thing, youre right, too.I hadnt thought about that, but youre right. Standing up for his rights. Thats -- in this country, thats something to think about, back in the 30s and in the South, to stand up for your rights like that. Huh. Hoo. I 00:14:00think about him. I respect him more now, since I got that letter from you and read that.
HELFAND: Now, does it -- he -- I-Im really moved by what you said. I mightnot really have anything else to say. (laughter) You know, you -- he, um, -- do you know what his work was like? Did you ever see him do his work at the cotton mill?
HUNDLEY: (inaudible) say, before the strike -- but you know, after the strike,when I read that -- well, I guess that was (inaudible) that he wrote about him, going back to get the job back, and they had the machine gun. Well, after that, he got -- he went back to work at the mill. And I remember it then, because we used to go over there quite a bit, you know, down in the village. And they worked -- they-they took cotton -- what we called it, you know, -- in and out of 00:15:00the mill. But they -- on the little port, back there, wed see them on the docks after. But you know, we never did go in there, where they were working at. (coughs) My mother, she washed for a bunch of the people there and then wed go down there.
HELFAND: What are you thinking?
HUNDLEY: Mm. Im thinking about the [place?] we used to [watch for mail?].But, uh... Then he -- I dont know about it. Later years, he left. I dont know why he quit. Maybe he worked -- he went and got a job someplace else for him there.
HELFAND: Yeah. Do you know at the same time that your dad was writing thisletter, they organized a union -- a local union -- over in Guntersville, at the -- at the -- at Saratoga --
HUNDLEY: At the Saratoga Mills? They did? I didnt know that. Hm. Well,00:16:00then, th-th-they didnt have many of them employees. That was the only strike back at that time, though, that Im asking the question now.
HELFAND: Um, well, it seems like some they hired back.
HUNDLEY: (laughter) They did.
HELFAND: Some they hired back and some, maybe, they didnt. But so at thesame time, there were -- that your father wrote this letter, there was this union being organized over there at the mill. So you know what? Could you put my -- take my question and turn it into a question for me? Or a statement?
HELFAND: Just -- you could say, so what youre telling me, Judy, is -- or,so what youre telling me is that the same time my father wrote this letter, they were -- had a union over there?
HUNDLEY: So what you are telling me, Judy, the same my father wrote that letter,they was having a union over there? At the old mill in Guntersville. Is that right? (sighs) 00:17:00
HELFAND: I dont know if theres a connection.
HUNDLEY: I wouldnt...
HELFAND: The-the connection -- actually, the connection is that they organizedthe union because the NRA gave them that right?
HUNDLEY: The right to organize. So thats why they-they were -- I guess theywere really basing their rights on what the NRA had put out in the year of 33. Thats what Im looking at right here.
HELFAND: So they organized a union --
HUNDLEY: From --
HELFAND: -- and your father wrote a letter.
HUNDLEY: Wrote a letter. And --
HELFAND: So can you say that?
HUNDLEY: They organized the union and my father wrote a letter. And I...? (laughter)
HELFAND: All right, Im-Im -- its not -- I feel like Im putting wordsin your mouth.
HELFAND: All right.
HUNDLEY: OK. (laughter)
HELFAND: Well, Im just te-- anyway, thats what was going on.
HELFAND: So -- and thats why your fathers letter has always been sointriguing to me, because it was happening concurrently. 00:18:00
HUNDLEY: Well, back -- like I said, back then, when he -- when they -- when theywere organizing that, and he wrote that letter, I-I would say that he wrote it after they -- that act passed, and he was writing the letter, I guess, like you said, for his rights. It was his right to write the letter, he thought. If somebody was doing him wrong, he had a right to write a thing. And so he wrote it to see (inaudible). They were working him, like I said, the 67 and 66 hours a week for the same salary. He wasnt making anything. So he wrote the letter, see if he could get any protection for him and his people, I guess, working that. What I can gather, there, him and Dallas Moore were the only two colored employees full time and they wsa taking those other people there just as part time. And paying them whatever they wanted to, you know, working them long hours for nothing. 00:19:00
HELFAND: Now, I found this other document that your father wrote. In fact,Dallas Moore wrote one, too. So there was this strike --
CREW: Judith (inaudible).
HELFAND: What? OK. You know what, its an affidavit. Its something thathe wrote, that all the white -- all the union people also wrote that when they couldnt get their jobs back. They filed these affidavits. So your father filed one, too.
HUNDLEY: Sure did. Uh. "I was (inaudible). We went back to our jobs but theywouldnt let us near the mill, held us off with machine guns -- colored men. 00:20:00Claude Hundley, [Dunn Frick?]" -- and I think I know that fellow. "National Recovery Administration and complaints of violation of code over our competition for the cotton textile trade." And so he filed this after -- after -- he had got -- after the strikewas over. Hmm. Right here, it says his principal second was a yard hand. Thats what I thought they did. They just -- you know, just doing work in the yard. And this one here, from Dallas Moore. They were good friends. Hm-hm.
HELFAND: So it seems like they were part of the union.00:21:00
HUNDLEY: Um, from that they sure do -- [inaudible]. I wish I could say. Well.I dont... To write to... Im saying they were -- Im saying they were part of trying to organize the union. Thats-thats what were saying right now. But the reason this there, they wouldnt let them get their jobs back after they got the union in. They didnt get their jobs back; they held them off with machine guns back in there. What theyre say-- what theyre saying here, they headed off the colored workers with machine guns.
HELFAND: Well, basically, what happened was I mean -- I have a stack of theseaffidavits. Theyre all from the white textile --
HELFAND: -- workers who joined the local union. And out of over 100 of theseaffidavits, I found two -- one from Claude and one from Dallas Moore. So were thinking maybe they were -- I dont know. Maybe they -- you know, when they tried to go back to work, after the strike was over, they didnt get -- they couldnt go -- couldnt get back in, they were held off with machine guns. So they filed this affidavit. So I dont know if theyre part of the union or not.
HUNDLEY: Thats what -- and what I was looking at right here, too, after hedid that, after Claude, my father did, and then Dallas both made one little paragraph down here, colored men. And so it would seem to me that they might have held them all off, but particularly the colored man -- colored workers. But Im pretty -- I know he went back to work at the mill later, yeah. Because see, he wo-- he worked that about a year before he left here. And he 00:23:00worked a year at the ice house, packing ice. And I was tw-- I was 12 years old when he left -- when he left here. So he worked there until I was 10 [?] years old. But during the strike in 33, I was about two or three years.
HELFAND: See, the strike was in 34.
HELFAND: And what Ive been trying to understand is did the black workersparticipate --
HUNDLEY: In the strike?
HELFAND: -- in the strike, in the union. Were they part of the local thatincluded, or were they not included? It seems like your daddy and Dallas maybe were included.
HUNDLEY: Im-Im saying that they were part of it, trying to form the union,from what I can gather out of that letter, there. Im-Im pretty sure of that. I know Dallas Moore, he was just that type of fellow, too. But, uh, you 00:24:00know, back then, youre talking about in the 30s in the South. That wasnt an easy time for colored people back in those times. (laughter) I can remember some of them, because (inaudible) hoo, after about 10 or 11 years old, see. So it was kind of...
HELFAND: So --
HUNDLEY: Really, we didnt have any -- you didnt have any-any rights verymuch back then, not in the South.
HELFAND: Could you-you put the paper down for a second? Yeah. What-what-whatare you saying? Say that again?
HUNDLEY: Colored people back in the 30s didnt have much rights. They hadthem but they didnt exercise them. We couldnt. You in tr-- you (inaudible) [orders?], youll find youre in a tree. They didn't -- they 00:25:00couldn't -- thats the reason I -- thats the reason I respect him so much for writing that later, after you were -- after you got in touch with us about it. A lot of the people in the South would never wrote a letter like that.
HELFAND: And sign their name.
HUNDLEY: Claude Hundley.
HELFAND: He signed his name.
HUNDLEY: He signed his name to the paper, too. Thats something, too. Youknow, some people would have wrote it, wouldnt even sign their name. They would have just had an anonymous down there. But he wrote his name and he was -- him signing his name was something great, too. Ill just put it that way. Well, Im proud he did it, certainly, really. (inaudible)
HUNDLEY: No. (laughter) I was just thinking. I -- hes -- hes not herenow, but I would like to shake his hand for that, after reading that letter. I really would. Tell him Im -- tell him how proud I was of him. Yeah, so. (sighs) (laughter)
HELFAND: What are you thinking about?
HUNDLEY: Im thinking about all the people back there, back in the 30s,when they were working at those mills, that probably didnt have the same [thrall?]. I guess a lot of people did that, too, [over the South?]. Because Im pretty sure what all those big cotton textile mills were doing, everybody 00:27:00was about the same way. And you take that mill out there, and, like you said, many employees that they had and just two black workers out there at that time -- Dallas Moore and Claude Hundley, my father -- and one of them -- bo-- well, both of them stood up and wanted to write a letter like that is something to really think about. Because I doubt Id have the nerve to write a letter. I know I wouldnt.
HELFAND: Knowing that your daddy did, do you think maybe it would make you thinkabout yourself differently?
HUNDLEY: Now, I do. I probably would, I -- Like I said, I never would have th--I knew my father. I knew he was the kind of man who would do a lot of things, but I-I never would have thought hed write a letter and signed his name to it, back in the 30s. Not for no union out there, not at that mill. But 00:28:00after reading it and looking at it, I just respect him. Lets put it that way. I respect him.
HELFAND: You know, we werent sure -- can you tell me about that bible?
HUNDLEY: This is the old family bible. And I think thats where -- oh.Ill pick this up. Its an old family bible here with -- he-he documented everything in this bible. Everything. Thats my mothers name. It has all the childrens date and birth and everything.
HELFAND: And could you talk about why we found it?
HUNDLEY: Well, we were trying to-to -- what you call it? -- authenticate thissignature on this letter, here, with his handwriting. And after I found this old family bible and we went through it, thats it. Now, my auntie had this. I didnt know she had a bible like this. And she let us borrow it. And 00:29:00its Claude Hundley. [Liberty Bell Harris?]. He got my sisters and brothers, everything, names in it, back in there.
HELFAND: So its -- could you hold the letter in one hand and the bible in theother and tell me what -- (laughter)
HUNDLEY: Can I lay this back? You got me going.
HUNDLEY: Letter in one?
HELFAND: Yeah, just so you can tell me, you know, that, uh, I know this is realbecause of this. You could even -- what were you going --
HUNDLEY: Well, Im just looking at the two signatures and you can tellthats real. This is his handwriting. Claude Hundley, Guntersville, Alabama. And the same things in the se-- this (inaudible) that says Claude Hundley, 00:30:00Liberty Bell Harris. The handwriting in the -- of course, you cant see it, but I would like to (inaudible) but I want to get it around. Let you see it. Theres the bible. Me holding a bible. Can I turn it this way, too? This is the handwriting on the letter and this is the signature on the bible. Well?
HELFAND: So you know your daddy did it?
HUNDLEY: I-I know he did it. Thats his handwriting. Sure is. You just lookat it. And thats... 00:31:00
HELFAND: Thats great. You know, that was really something. We were reallywondering is that his handwriting? Now, its not -- his handwritings different on that affidavit.
HUNDLEY: Oh. But in this bible, here, and this letter, here, if you really lookat it, its the same. But now, on this affidavit, its -- I was looking at daddys -- see, its (inaudible). I dont know. Thats what I was looking at on there. His -- [see, it says?] Claude, but its H-U-N-D-L-A. It looks like Hundalord or something. Thats what I was looking at there. Its different than in back there, but. But this is -- I know this is Dallas Moore. I know him and spoke of him (inaudible)
HELFAND: Its something finding a bible, knowing that its definitely the handwriting.
HUNDLEY: Handwriting to get an old-old bible like this. I didnt even know00:32:00they had one like it. But she got it. I dont know how she... Because I guess, you know, back years ago, this is how people kept records, in old bibles like this. Back then, in the South, especially. So theyd probably put all the birthdates and everything down in them (inaudible).
HELFAND: Thats a nice (inaudible). Can you hold up my (inaudible) kind of...Hm. Does it -- did you almost need -- did you need to know that there was a bible that -- did you need to authenticate your daddys handwriting?
HUNDLEY: I would have liked to. I-Im glad we got the bible so we could makesure his handwriting is authenticated, you know. Because he-he was-was ter-- he 00:33:00could write, but he was left-handed. You know, dad -- my dad was left-handed. (laughter) Hm-hm.
HELFAND: Can you imagine your daddy -- you could put it, um. (inaudible) Um.You could -- yeah. You could put the (inaudible) down. (break in audio) -- our community in the early -- in the mill village here, and your relationship to the mill?
HUNDLEY: Well, see, when they -- when they putting the mill was there, theybuilt that village just for the employees. But there was no black families that lived down there. They didnt let them live in the village at that time. Um, 00:34:00we lived up what we called The Hill. Thats [the end?] it didnt have a street name. [We just?] Hill, so. Uh, it just -- it was just wasnt customary for a black family to live down in the mill village where they (inaudible) would -- they had those -- the two worked there, but they didnt [take?] them live in those-those part (inaudible) down there. And then, later years, you know, I think they sold them to the employees, after it was over.
HELFAND: And so -- and the jobs that you could all do or couldnt do?
HUNDLEY: Could-- they would -- like I said, I s-- I-I [yielded?] as a cottontrucker, is what we called it. But they were just yard hands. Thats about all the... But I dont think no people -- or no blacks back then worked in the bobbin rooms and where they made the cloth. And they just worked out in the yard, thats all. They, uh, trucked cotton [about the size of it?]. Yeah. I was going to say, they -- Dallas and dad, I know they trucked cotton. Because 00:35:00they used to tell about how (inaudible) Dallas was. He was a pretty good man. Dallas Moore.
HELFAND: And what was their relationship with the other white workers, do yo--do you know? Can you imagine?
HUNDLEY: I know they had a pretty good relationship with some. Now, I ca-- Ica-- I couldnt say why, but I know some of the employees that worked with them they had a pretty good relationship with. But like I said, all of them, I got-- I wouldnt... I wouldnt know. So.
HELFAND: So is this the first time -- I mean, the fact that you know your --that your daddy [and Claude?], we dont know what-what -- I havent been able to find out if they were members of the union or they werent.
HUNDLEY: Maybe (overlapping dialogue; inaudible) --
HELFAND: I dont know. But maybe you could -- I-I dont know. I mean,maybe you could just even help me -- you know, maybe you could just say, look, I-I dont know, you know. Does this mean that they were members of the union? 00:36:00I dont know. But it means that they were part -- that they had a relationship to the union in some way.
HUNDLEY: Uh, but Im sure that, from what I can gather, they did. But Idont know whether they actually got a union or not.
HELFAND: They had a local union.
HUNDLEY: They had a local union? So-so I never did hear him talk about havingbeen part of a union there. I never had heard him say that. I really didnt. But if they had a union, he worked there in later years and Im pretty sure hed had to be part of it.
HELFAND: But it-it seems like at that time, they were part of -- they-they hadsome connection to the union, just because they signed this affidavit.
HUNDLEY: Affidavit, mm-hmm.
HELFAND: Could -- if y-you know, is there so-- could you -- could you say thatfor me? (laughter)
HUNDLEY: (laughter) Lets see now, what you (inaudible).
HELFAND: I mean, uh, I guess -- Im just -- You know, Im -- I dont -- Ionly have questions. I dont have any answers.
HELFAND: But those affidavits are very interesting. Because it means that theyhad some kind of --
HUNDLEY: Connection with the union.
HELFAND: Right. Right. Maybe you could -- why dont you pick up those andyou could read them out loud. And you could tell me that. [break in audio] Im going to sit down.
HUNDLEY: [inaudible- --
HELFAND: Sit -- yeah, so you could -- you could even say, so youre telling methat this -- that this is what they filled out when the strike was over. And you could read it out loud.
HUNDLEY: All right. So this is what they filled out when the strike was over."(inaudible) National Recovery Administration complaints or violations of code [or for?] competition for the cotton textile trade industry. Tenth -- this was 10th and 13th of 34. Guntersville, Alabama. Lets see. Name a person (inaudible) complaints from respondents Saratoga Victory Mill, Guntersville, 00:38:00Alabama. Textile workers. Principal (inaudible) to produce, process, and sell cotton cloth. Principal services was for yard hand. Name of complainer: Claude Hundley. Town, Guntersville, Alabama. Nature of complaint states (inaudible) to indicate a clear violation of some definition provision of the code through which [it funded?] (inaudible). I often distract but over we went back to our job, but they wouldnt let us near the mill, held us off with machine guns. Colored men." So what Im saying, if they were part of it, and then after it was over, they let them -- uh, after it was over, and they went 00:39:00back to their job, they wouldnt hire them back. They held them off with machine guns and they -- hes mak-- hes making a statement of a colored mans.
HELFAND: I guess they wanted to identify that these two workers --
HUNDLEY: Theres two men, but just colored men that wrote this letter. Butthey -- it seemed to me that they were part of it, though. Thats what Im saying, to [try?] -- I guess, they-they had to be part of it. Just those two, because these were the only two full-time colored employees that they had at the mill at that time. So they had to be part of it. And I guess they just -- I dont know.
HELFAND: I dont know either.
HUNDLEY: You got me there. (laughter)
HELFAND: But its really -- its-its interesting.
HUNDLEY: Its interesting. Mm-hmm.
HELFAND: So does it -- it seems like your father and Dallas, they were having --00:40:00it was some kind of, uh, a different kind of relationship with the white workers there.
HUNDLEY: Workers at the mill, at that time.
HELFAND: Could you -- could you say that or talk about that? Take my words andput them in your own language?
HUNDLEY: Hm. You have to enlighten me, there, a little bit now.
HELFAND: Im-Im -- based on that-that letter -- the first letter that hewrote about -- he wrote about the black workers and the white workers, --
HUNDLEY: White workers.
HELFAND: -- in a sense. And here, he must be working with the white union --with the union in some way if he signed that affidavit. So it see-- so all -- what Im saying is it seems like this is a moment of time where your father is having a different kind of -- a-a-a- particular --
HUNDLEY: A good -- a good -- a good relationship with (inaudible), Imthinking, with some of the workers. I dont know about all of them but, you 00:41:00know, if he -- if, uh, if him and Dallas was part of that union, and then they wrote this letter, this grievance -- Im-Im saying its a grievance letter. And then they go back and they won't let them have the job back. Then they had to be part of it. And they had to be working with the white workers to get them to-to, you know, to do something like that. Of course, or-or [oh, per the time?], I would rec-- like you said, I-I dont -- I rally do -- I really wish I knew the answer, but I dont. I dont know-know what happened after that. But I do know that he went back to work at the mill a year or two later. I know he worked there some more. Him and Dallas both -- of course, Dallas was working there when he passed. And my daddy left -- I was 10 years old when he left. And then, after that, [he left here?].
HELFAND: Do you -- what do you think caused the change? Do you think it was00:42:00Roosevelt? Do you think it was --
HUNDLEY: I think Roosevelt was the change. President Roosevelt. Back in 32,when he took office, we was -- everybody was on -- what? -- WPA. I think he made a big change in this country.
HELFAND: And what about this-this change in attitude?
HUNDLEY: Hm, hm, hm, hm. You know, change can kind -- change comes with time.I think people, as time went on, they seemed to get work -- you know, get closer to letting you work better with people. I dont know, well, how to state it, but Im just saying that, uh, that out there at that mill, especially, they had-- they had pretty good relationships out there, in a sense, that I know of. Of course, I was out there a whole lot. Uh. Uh. I dont know how to word 00:43:00that thing, Ill be honest with you. (laughter)
CREW: Um, (inaudible) the microphone fell. (break in audio) Thank you.
HELFAND: OK, you were talking about being shocked.
HUNDLEY: Yeah. When you called about that letter, it shocked me. It sure did.I didnt realize that he had anything -- wrote a letter like that. And after talking with you, and getting back together -- and I talked to people, you know, two or three people, I did that I knew. The younger people out in the village in the [light mill summer?]. And then you came down, and we went out and talked to some of them, and... It just was amazing that he wrote a letter back in-in the -- whats amazing about him writing it back in 33, on the civil right -- for his rights. Well, you can say -- you could say itd be a civil right, the same thing, back in that period of time. Because in the South, for a man to 00:44:00write a letter and sign his name -- especially a black man -- for a union was something unheard of. I dont -- [inaudible] thought of it.
HELFAND: What could happen to him?
HUNDLEY: (laughter) Found out (inaudible) you know. They had what you called KuKlux Klan. Theyd hang you, if black people back then for stuff like that. They would.
HELFAND: So what do you think gave your father -- and use my question -- what doyou think gave your father the courage at that time to do it?
HUNDLEY: What I think that gave him the courage, prove himself hes a man.And he had any right in this country as any other man. Thats what I think. 00:45:00And thats what I feel. No matter if hes green, gray, or what. If youre a man in this country, say everybody had the same rights. So he wrote the letter. And I find -- I-I really respect him for doing that.
HELFAND: And-and that period of time, I mean, I know you were just a little boy,but that NRA, what do you think that NRA and President Roosevelt was saying to him? Use my question.
HUNDLEY: Saying to him.
HELFAND: Thats what I mean by what else was going on at that time.
HUNDLEY: I-I think that the president was telling -- not only was telling all[paid men?] that they have a right for fair wages at these mills as any other person did, thats what Im saying. And, uh, when they -- when they put it in effect, and they wasnt using it, so he took -- to make sure, he wrote them a letter to find out. But the president was telling them that you have a right for eight hours of work, just like in the same pay as any other man in this country. 00:46:00
HELFAND: You know, he got, um, a re-response.
HUNDLEY: Yeah? It -- but... Hm?
HELFAND: Its there.
HUNDLEY: OK. Lord, excuse me. Let me get these -- get the response. I hadnt...
HELFAND: Yeah, its there.
HUNDLEY: Oh, yeah. OK. Yeah, this is a response from -- this is from the, uh,huh. I didnt know the... Yeah, heres a response from the Claude Hundley letter, Guntersville Alabama. [Theyve decided to?] acknowledge weve received -- weve received your letter. Attached here are two mimeograph sheets which we ask you to read carefully. Hm. Of the textile code. The article order set forth proceeding for dealing with all complaints arising from 00:47:00this stretch out for special (inaudible) system of any other word and condition. Art-- two and three of the code are definitions of exemption from the code agreed upon and published by cotton textile advisement committee. After reading the enclosed extract from the code you are in doubt as to the proceeding, the committee would be glad to have you write again. Yours very truly, the textile [macklin?] industrial relation board, Robert Lee, Barry Sherman, George E. Barry, and B. F. Greer. So they go-- they-they responded to him about it, so he had a right to -- so they -- and that means he must have got some little -- must have got somebodys thoughts -- some sh-- somebodys mind right there. Plus they wrote him a letter back. 00:48:00
HELFAND: He got some mimeograph sheets.
HUNDLEY: Yeah. Oh. He got some mim-mim-mimeograph sheets from-from -- he gotthem from the, uh, from the, uh, -- from the committee. From the textile committee, yeah. So and that -- they must have been kind of impressed with the letter themselves, I would say, doing that.
HELFAND: I dont know if they did any more than that.
HUNDLEY: No. I do-- (inaudible) dont know that.
HUNDLEY: I said, you never know. I dont know. I know that -- I never knowwhether he got in, but he probably did. Because he-he -- they had kept (inaudible) old records. But I was, you know, small, I didnt know. But if he got a response, he kept them somewhere.
HELFAND: Now, you never heard about the strike. You never heard about thisletter. I know, between you and me, --
HELFAND: -- that daddy was away for a very long time. But do you have anythingto say about, you know, maybe this is something he never told you. Why you 00:49:00think that, what it means?
HUNDLEY: Well, uh, I would like to say this: I would like to sh-show myappreciation to you for enlightening me on some things that my father did. See, I never would have knowed that. I never would have knowed about the letter or anything, if it hadnt been for you. So I really appreciated you for that. And after you enlightened me on it, it made me respect him more. (inaudible) for letting me know that he wrote a letter and you going to I dont know how much trouble it is to dig -- go through those archives and dig up stuff like that. But I bet it's a pretty-pretty tiresome job. I dont think I would like it. But I appreciate you for doing that. And I appreciate you for coming and talking with me and letting me know that my dad did something like that. 00:50:00
HELFAND: What do you think happens to the South or the area when people dontknow that their forefathers and foremothers did stuff like that?
HUNDLEY: Not knowing something like that, you -- I-Im saying the South wouldgo to -- you-you either on the standstill or youre going backwards. Because, see, if nobody ever enlightened you on something like that, youd think your forefathers or fathers had never did anything for you. So you just say, well, he just was in the world and he never contributed anything to society. So to come up with something like that, to let you know that back then, during the 30s, that we had black people with nerve enough to write a letter and put their name on it in the South. Well, something like that is -- it is wonderful to me. I just respect him a lot. Not only my father, I respect any black man that did that.
HELFAND: What about the white men?00:51:00
HUNDLEY: I respect them on it too. I really do. I just -- Im not a fellowthat look at color. I respect anybody that would speak out for his rights. But you know, in later years, this comes to [mean?]. But to make me respect my father more was you enlightened me on what he had done back in the 30s. Andthat made me respect him more in that sense. And then, the white worker that stood up for their rights, I respect them the same way. Of course, I-I-I dont know all of them, but I still respect them.
HELFAND: What is so intriguing about your fathers letter is that at the time,he was looking out for the white workers too.
HUNDLEY: Well, he was looking out for white and black workers, Id say,because he didnt -- he didnt just specify colored. He said white -- colored and white on that last paragraph down there. So they -- the ones that were working the yard, Im saying that the white workers that were working in the yard with them were getting the same [preferential?] treatment as the black workers were. So he was looking out for both of them when he wrote that letter, there. 00:52:00
HELFAND: Is that something -- I mean, the fact that all of a sudden, they wereconcerned more about class and they were concerned about economics than they were about race?
HUNDLEY: I would say the ones that were working out there, they werentconcerned too much about race. They were concerned about economics. Because back in those times, you know, the textile workers -- and especially in Guntersville -- that was about the only place that people had to work, to make a living. So something like that, if-if-if you werent foreman, so you had to put race aside, especially if you were working out in the yard. And then, uh, to look for the economy. But then, they might put it aside, but they still keep it in the back of their mind. Theyre never going to throw that race at them completely, Ill just tell you straight up. Theyre not going to do that. (laughter) 00:53:00
HELFAND: But race was part of it.
HUNDLEY: It had to be. Sure was.
HELFAND: Because some people could do some jobs --
HUNDLEY: Yeah, and some -- and they-they --
HELFAND: Could you describe that to us?
HUNDLEY: They, uh, -- well, see, back then there, all of your -- I called itback-breaking -- jobs, the colored workers have got it. You know, they had certain jobs the white men would do and so they had the colored workers for it. And so thats what Im saying, on -- especially on those kind of -- that kind of work. They just had that special job for them, and one no white people were going to do it. Because, uh, I remember -- I can remember this, right here, I dont guess theres that much to it, but I remember in Guntersville, years ago, when the white men wouldnt work on a garbage truck. He wouldnt pick up garbage, back in the 30s. But they do now. They work -- (laughter) they work anywhere. 00:54:00
HELFAND: So in the mill, how did race break down in the mill, do you know what I mean?
HUNDLEY: They -- you didnt have any -- what Im saying, you dont haveany black people in no office work. You didnt have them up in the mill working in bobbin or nothing like that. All you had them was working in the yard, trucking cotton. But I called it back-breaking work. Thats all they did. And maybe you might have some to clean up, sweep up once or twice. That would be about all. They didnt work up in those -- up in the -- inside that mill. Period. The -- well, uh, even later years, I dont remember any working up in there. All I ever know, after they left, they worked in the back, back out trucking cotton. Thats what the black people always did out there at that mill.
HELFAND: So if they were -- so-so and why was it? Why was it like that? Whatdid it mean for the white workers? Because being a textile worker wasnt -- 00:55:00
HUNDLEY: Well, he just -- so he just -- uh, (laughter) if he didnt truckcotton, he was just a step above the man that trucked cotton, thats all it was. Thats -- he was just a little bit above him, thats all it was. And thats what they kept them up that way. He just -- because he-he-hes going to be a step above the black man, period. And so that made him a step above it if he didnt get out there and get down on the same level he did and truck cotton. So he kept them down there and he worked in the mill (inaudible) whatever the case might be.
HELFAND: But doing mill work, I mean, that wasnt like a real, uh, high classjob in Guntersville, was it?
HUNDLEY: Back then, it had to be, sure. It was high. That was -- a millworker, then, was -- they were... Because that was the only work in this town. That was the only-only mill here was that old cotton mill, old Saratoga cotton mill, see. And people worked there, that worked in the mill, they were, well, well say middle class. Yeah, and if you worked in the office you were a 00:56:00little step higher.
HELFAND: Ive heard this term lint head.
HUNDLEY: (laughter) You [got a lint head?]. Thats-tha-tha-that -- those arethe ones that came out of those bobbin rooms, where all that cotton flies, you know. But see, now, I dont even know of any that worked in there. All I know that worked out there on the truck, like I said. See, they had -- back then, they didnt have lift to pick cotton up. You had to use hand trucks to truck. And (inaudible) and so thats what they did most of [the time?].
HELFAND: So thats what your daddy was doing when he wrote that letter?
HUNDLEY: He was trucking cotton.
HELFAND: Could you --
HUNDLEY: And working on the yard. And well, they say yard work.Thats-thats all they did, the yard work. It was just trucking cotton, you know. If you -- they were familiar with the old mill. They-they unloaded it on lower side at the railroad track and then you had to bring it through the wire 00:57:00house up into the bobbin room, you know, for the people to push it out and put it in the bobbins and things.
HELFAND: Do you think your father told anybody that he wrote this letter?
HUNDLEY: I believe he would have told some people, yeah. I sure do. Like, Ihad an uncle he might -- that worked out there. They were pretty close. He could have talked to him, [Joe Ellen?] and (inaudible) worked out there. They were awful close, too.
HELFAND: But-but I-I-I-I spoke to Joe Ellen. He never heard of it.
HUNDLEY: He had never heard of it? Well, nobody else that I would know that hewould have told, then. (inaudible) Because I talked to my [Aunt Tense?] but she lived [on Wharton?]. She didnt remember anything about it. She didnt even remember the strike. But see, they lived out in -- way out in the country back and people couldnt -- no transportation, you couldnt get to town like you could now. 00:58:00
CREW: I have to change [batteries?].